Searching for blood in Chinese lacquerware: zhū xiě huī 豬 血 灰

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Publication Type:

Journal Article


Silvia Miklin-Kniefacz; Václav Pitthard; Walther Parson; Cordula Berger; Sabine Stanek; Martina Griesser; Štěpánka Hrdličková Kučková;


Studies in Conservation, Volume 61, Number sup3, p.45-51 (2016)


The study gives an overview of the tests and analyses undertaken in the past 20 years to establish the presence of blood in the foundation layers of Chinese lacquer artefacts and also shows the development of analytical methods over that period. When undertaking the conservation of lacquer objects it is crucial to know the type of binding medium as this influences the selection of any consolidants that may be required in the treatment. Microchemical tests to identify blood using benzidine and luminol, various chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques and DNA analyses were assessed on selected Chinese lacquer objects, and the results gained are summarized.