Consolidation and chromatic reintegration of historical renders with lime-based pozzolanic products

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Publication Type:

Journal Article


Patricia Pascoal; Giovanni Borsoi; Rosário Veiga; Paulina Faria; António Santos Silva;


Studies in Conservation, Volume 60, Number 5, p.321-332 (2015)


Historical renders are exposed to several degradation processes that can lead to a wide range of anomalies, such as scaling, detachments, and pulverization. Among the common anomalies, the loss of cohesion and of adhesion are usually identified as the most difficult to repair; these anomalies still need to be deeply studied to design compatible, durable, and sustainable conservation treatments. The restitution of render cohesion can be achieved using consolidating products. Nevertheless, repair treatments could induce aesthetic alterations, and, therefore, are usually followed by chromatic reintegration. This work aims to study the effectiveness of mineral products as consolidants for lime-based mortars and simultaneously as chromatic treatments for pigmented renders. The studied consolidating products are prepared by mixing air lime, metakaolin, water, and mineral pigments. The idea of these consolidating and coloring products rises from a traditional lime-based technique, the limewash, widely diffused in southern Europe and in the Mediterranean area. Consolidating products were applied and tested on lime-based mortar specimens with a low binder–aggregate ratio and therefore with reduced cohesion. A physico-mechanical, microstructural, and mineralogical characterization was performed on untreated and treated specimens, in order to evaluate the efficacy and durability of the treatments. Accelerated aging tests were also performed to assess consolidant durability, when subjected to aggressive conditions. Results showed that the consolidants tested are compatible, effective, and possess good durability.