竹胎珠寶漆盒的修護 The conservation of a lacquered bamboo jewellery box By Kao Wei

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Top lid

The following article has been adapted and translated into English from the poster chosen as the winner of the Student Poster Prize at the 2014 IIC Hong Kong Congress.
一、文物基本資料
此「竹製珠寶漆盒」為屏東縣客家文物館之典藏,尺寸為直徑13.9公分、高10公分,盒身與盒蓋可相密合成一圓柱形。文物胎體以竹子構成,胎表有地仗層之打底。文物外部(圖1、2)採朱色與黑色天然漆,以「填漆」技法髹繪飾紋;內部(圖3、4)皆為單色無紋飾,以黑漆打底後髹塗朱漆。此修護案受「六堆生活學院計畫」補助,並於2012年9月修護完成。
1. Introduction
This Lacquered bamboo jewellery box, with a diameter of 13.9 cm and height of 10 cm, was collected by the Hakka Culture Centre of Pingtung County. This round box has a slightly spherical lid on the top, a flat base at the bottom and straight sides. The object was constructed from bamboo, with a ground layer applied next. The exterior of the box was decorated using the "填漆(t'ien-ch'ih) technique, or "filled-in" technique. The interior has no pattern, with a layer of black lacquer (primer) and one of red lacquer (topper). The work presented at the IIC Congress was supported by the Liou Duei Hakka Organization, and was concluded in September 2012.
二、文物劣化狀況
竹胎基底材結構穩固,僅在文物的轉角與口緣處有遺失及斷損(圖5)之狀況。文物的漆層較厚,遺失(圖6)的狀況多分部於頂部與底部的邊緣,使黑色的地仗層顯露。此外,多數遍佈於漆層上的小裂痕(圖7)呈穩定狀態,少數裂痕有起甲狀況之伴隨。盒蓋內側與盒身外側因開合時的摩擦,而使朱漆層磨損導致下層黑漆顯露(圖8)。此文物內部之表面有白色不明漬痕(圖9)附著,多數質地堅硬、部分呈粉狀,而盒身側邊轉角處有黑色污漬(圖10)的堆積。
2. Condition
The bamboo substrate presented numerous small losses and fragmentation at the corners and rim, but was generally in fair structural condition. The lacquer layer is thick and featured losses to the lacquer on the edges of the top lid and on the base, exposing the underlying black ground layer. In addition, the fine cracks on the lacquer layer were generally stable, although there were a few fragments flaking off following the lines of the cracks. The abrasion between the interior of the lid and the exterior of the base are caused by usage, and resulted in the black lacquer being revealed through the missing red lacquer. The surface of the interior part of the object showed white powdery stains, most being of a stiff consistency. The sides of the box had the surface covered with black dirt.
三、文物測試與分析
溶劑測試:在文物進行清潔與加固步驟之前,選擇六個不同媒材的區域進行溶劑測試。測試溶劑由非極性至極性進行測試,分別為礦精、二甲苯、丙酮、乙醇與去離子水。測試結果顯示漆面及地仗層皆對測試之五種溶劑無反應,而需被移除污漬部分,顯示極性溶劑-去離子水和乙醇皆有良好的移除效果。
取樣分析:於文物表面取樣(圖11)並於光學顯微鏡觀察樣本層次,以瞭解漆層製作技法。正常光(圖12)下可觀察到取樣有三個層次,下為地仗層(塗層一),中為黑漆層(塗層二),上為朱漆層(塗層三)。可發現其符合「填漆」技法製作之工序。樣本在紫外光下無特別螢光反應。
3. Examination
Solvent test: Before cleaning and consolidation, some limited solvent tests were undertaken on the areas of the object that were composed of different materials. Five solvents were tested including mineral spirit, xylene, acetone, ethanol and deionised water. The results of the tests revealed that among the solvents, the non-polar ones were not successful in removing staining whereas the polar solvents (deionised water and ethanol) were effective in reducing the staining.
Cross section examination: The manufacturing technique used to produce the lacquer layers of the object was studied with cross section samples observed under an optical microscope.
The sample removed from the lid and observed in reflected light and UV light showed three layers: the ground layer (layer 1), a black lacquer layer (layer 2) and a red lacquer layer (layer 3). The sequence of layers conforms to the "filled-in" technique.
四、修護概念
本件文物修護之概念,以穩定文物已發生之劣化狀況為首要之要務。此外,未來的典藏與展覽環境、文物之基本功能、以及館方研究人員之作業需求等考量因素,將進一步的決定潛在有害因素的移除與修護方法的擬定。
4. Aim of the treatment
The main aim in treating this object was to stabilise its condition and slow down the process of deterioration. In deciding the appropriate course of treatment several factor had to be taken into consideration including the risk associated with invasive conservation treatment, consideration of the environmental condition the object will be kept in after treatment, the basic function of the object and the requirements of the curator.
五、維護處理
清潔:在進行加固之前,先以吸塵器與軟毛刷於文物表面之灰塵進行乾式清潔。經溶劑測試結果顯示,去離子水與乙醇於污漬清潔效果最佳,因此使用50%乙醇水溶液進行濕試清潔。而較難以移除的白色漬痕與黑色污漬(圖13)部分,使用50%乙醇凝膠於污漬表面做塗敷後以保鮮膜覆蓋,靜置片刻再使用50%乙醇水溶液清潔,即可達到良好的清潔成效(圖14)。
加固:不穩定的漆層較常發生在基底層之斷損處,而在漆層裂縫處和起甲處也有發現到相同之劣化狀況。其漆層皆厚且無變形,因此直接滲以25%溶於二甲苯之丙烯酸樹脂(Paraloid™ B-72)進行加固,爾後利用竹籤或夾具加壓至乾燥(圖15、16)。
5. Conservation
Surface cleaning: The surface of the object was lightly cleaned using a soft brush and a conservation-grade vacuum cleaner to remove loose surface dust before consolidation. Based on test results, deionized water and ethanol were the solvents of choice for removing dirt. A solution of 50% ethanol in deionized water was chosen for removing surface dirt and staining. White and black stains proved harder to shift so that cleaning was more effective using a 50%ethanol in gel form. The technique employed saw the application of the gel on the surface of the stains covered with a plastic film to prevent evaporation and quick drying. After a few minutes, the surface was cleaned with 50% ethanol in deionized water, until the stains could be removed successfully.
Consolidation: Instability of lacquer layers occur frequently on the area where the substrate is cracked; this was in fact the case on the areas of lacquer that was cracking and flaking. The unstable lacquer layers were quite thick and deformed; therefore a solution of 25% Paraloid™ B-72 in xylene was used for consolidation. The cracks adhered with the consolidant, were pressed down in their position by bamboo sticks and small clamps.
六、修復處理
填補:於基底材鬆動與遺失狀況之填補,以壓克力乳劑Plextor D498與micro- sphere: 3M glass bubble混合的填料呈現良好之效果。此填料可支撐鬆動的基底材並將遺失處做填補,使其達到穩定之狀況。而較大的基底材遺失區域(圖17)以巴沙木進行填補,將其裁切成符合遺失區域之形狀尺寸,再以Plextol D498將其與缺失處之基底材進行黏合(圖18),待巴沙木黏著處乾燥後,以相同之填料薄塗於缺失處,使器形表面平順(圖19)。此填料之選擇是考量其強度較弱於文物本體,在開合時不會導致漆面磨損。
全色:於修護填補處以Gamblin Conservation Colors為全色材料進行全色,並利用砂紙做局部的打磨作舊,使填補全色處與原文物外觀具一致性(圖20)。
6. Restoration
Filling: In order to infill missing areas in the box, a filler was made from Plextol D498 and engineered hollow glass microspheres: 3M™glass bubbles gave good results helping to support the loose fragments and filling the missing substrate. In areas of larger loss, balsa wood was chosen as a filler material. After shaping the balsa wood and making it adhere to the surface and the flakes, Plextol D498 was used, and the surface polished to obtain a smooth result. These fillers were chosen for their surface characteristics as once hard they are softer than the surface of the box and therefore avoid stress and abrasion to the surface of the object in the future.
Retouching: Retouching was performed using Gamblin Conservation Colours, and the retouched surface was polished with sand paper once dry.
附註:文物工藝技法
「填漆」技法,日本以「蒟醬」稱之,其有鏤嵌、磨顯二種之製作方式。第一種「鏤嵌填漆」,是在漆面上刻出花紋圖樣(圖21),再以色漆塗布使其填滿刻線(圖22),爾後研磨使紋樣顯露(圖23);而第二種「磨顯填漆」是以五彩稠漆堆成花紋,後將面漆罩滿全器,再研磨至紋樣顯露。兩種方式都使漆面齊平,彷若將紋樣嵌入其中。此竹製珠寶漆盒的裝飾技法屬第一種「鏤嵌填漆」之方法(圖24)。(參考資料:國立故宮博物院網站)
Notes - Decorative Technique
The "填漆(t'ien-ch'ih) " technique can be translated as the "filled-in" technique in English. There are two different techniques to make filled-in lacquer ware: the first technique is based on carving the surface and filling it; the second technique is characterised by piling up layers and burnishing these to get the desired look.
In the first type of technique, the pattern is carved into the lacquer layer, and the coloured lacquer applied on the whole of the surface so to 'fill in' the carved lines. The pattern is revealed by polishing. In the second technique, the pattern is obtained by 'piling up' on the surface many layers of coloured lacquer, followed by a further lacquer layer covering the whole surface. The pattern is subsequently revealed by polishing. With both techniques the lacquer surface is quite flat and smooth, looking like the patterns are inlaid into the surface. The lacquered bamboo jewellery box was made using the first type of technique here described.