Investigation of the Brass Monument to Minin and Pozharsky, Red Square, Moscow

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Publication Type:

Journal Article


Bogolitsyna, Anna; Sizov, Boris; Pichler, Bernhard; Vendl, Alfred; Mikhailov, Alexander;


Studies in Conservation, Volume 54, Number 1, p.12-22 (2009)


Powder patina and metal bulk samples, about 70 in all, were taken from the brass monument to Minin and Pozharsky in the Red Square, Moscow. These samples were used to study the composition of the patina. The analyses included X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The principal component of the experimental work was the crystalline compounds of the patina. The alloy microstructure was analysed with respect to its casting technology. The patina from different sites was differentiated. The impact of microclimate and the environmental situation regarding the degradation of this sculpture was evaluated. This investigation was carried out to provide experimental results for a comprehensive approach to restoration measures in the future.